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Western Digital Black 6TB HDD Review

AkG

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5,274
It may seem counter intuitive to enthusiasts who have migrated entirely over to SSDs, but standard spindle-based media isn’t on its way out the door anytime soon. Instead the main goals and design priorities of traditional hard drives have simply changed along with the changing market.

Western Digital has effectively evolved in the last few years from a company that has focused upon trying to deliver the absolute fastest drives possible (an achievement now reserved to SSDs) to one which offers a broad range of high capacity storage solutions. Lineups like the Blue and Green series have been consolidated into a “mainstream” product offering under the Blue designation that hopes to combine extreme capacities alongside affordable prices and good performance. There’s also the Red, Red Pro and RE series which cater to NAS environments and the surveillance system friendly Purples. Meanwhile, the famous Black drives continue to strive towards a combination of leading edge (for spindle-based storage) throughput and massive storage space at a slightly higher price point and without the energy-savings technologies of the Blues.


In the past a Black series drive had to be capable at handling files of all sizes and do so in every given situation. In other words, they had to be good at dealing with the Operating System’s demands, and short to mid-term storage needs. Today the same does not hold true since in many cases Hybrid Drives and SSDs have taken over the ‘OS Drive’ duties for more and more users, and the classic hard drive has been relegated more to secondary storage duties items such as games and pure data. This is true for both system integrators and DIY builders as setting up a dual storage system is now easier than ever.

There is still however a relatively large audience who can’t justify the capacity limitations of even today’s SSDs in relation to what’s available or much less money on the HDD side of the fence. Performance be damned. Western Digital also needed to insure the Black’s capabilities still satisfied these folks’ needs as well. That’s a pretty tall order.


Instead of being loud, fast and essentially a perfect alternative to the 10,000RPM drives of yesteryear, the newer generations of Blacks make less noise, used less power, created less heat, and had firmware tuned more towards sequential read/write performance instead of raw IOP/s performance.

In plain English this all means the newer Black series drives still offer more overall performance than many of the other series under WD’s wings due to their larger cache buffer, higher 7200RPM rotational speed and other advanced features. However, the Reds, Blues, Purples and more datacenter-focused solutions all have various strengths that are tailor-made for their particular market. For example, the RE-series has extended MTBF, enhanced data recovery abilities and durability, all elements that will make datacenters happy but are completely unnecessary in a home environment.

The newer Black 6TB follows down the new path blazed by the 4TB version some time ago, and takes Western Digital’s high performance mass market series further and further into the future. As with the 4TB model, the 6TB Black offers extremely good capacity, peak performance of well over 200MB/s, and accomplishes both without excess noise.

On just a cursory glance these elements along would make anyone wonder why they should purchase the significantly more expensive Black 6TB over the older 4TB edition…..besides getting 50% more storage space of course. After all, both models offer massive amounts of capacity, make use of a dual core controller, come with a 5-year warranty, use the same 3.5” form-factor, and even look identical.


Furthermore, neither makes used of exotic builds like sealing the chassis and filling the inside with helium, nor do they make use of SMR (shingled magnetic recording) or HAMR (heat-assisted magnetic recording) to boost platter densities. They do not even use onboard NAND to boost performance. Instead both use classical PMR (Perpendicular Magnetic Recording) technology and only have a relatively small amount of onboard RAM cache to boost performance.


The answer to this is simple: the devil is in the details. The last generation 4TB made use of four 1TB platters and eight read/write heads (one per side, per platter). The 6TB does not use 1TB platters but instead boosts densities by 20% to 1.2TB. This in addition to having ten read/write heads means overall performance should be noticeably better than the 6TB Black’s predecessor – which was no slouch in the speed department. In other words, the new 6TB Black promises to be even faster, stay faster longer and generally be more efficient than any Black model previously released.


In order to take advantage of this increased performance potential Western Digital has also upgraded numerous key core components. The first and most obvious is the RAM Cache has been boosted to 128MB from 64MB. More importantly thanks to improved Dynamic Cache Technology the underlying caching algorithms are even more prescient at guessing what will be requested next, and moving the data off the relatively slow platters and on to the RAM cache before the request is made. In theory this too should further boost overall throughput well beyond what the last generation was capable of.


The dual core controller is also newer and more effective and while it still is ‘only’ a dual core design, its abilities have drastically been improved since the 4TB Black days. Interestingly enough, the controller is now LSI branded rather than being a Marvell-based SoC. This new more powerful design should push the newer generation HDD into different territory, especially during deeper queue depth IO request scenarios.


In addition to these changes there are two more that are quite interesting and noteworthy. Firstly, instead of one flash chip for the firmware, Western Digital has included seven. Obviously the firmware has become larger and a certain amount of redundancy is now being included.

In addition, Western Digital now includes three shock sensors. These shock sensors were included on the previous Blacks but are now more sensitive and capable. What these do is allow the drive to sense in real time any potential damaging vibrations or shocks, and adjust the height of the arms so that ‘cow belling’ (the heads slamming into the platters) does not occur.


Mix in a five-year warranty, that still includes free advanced exchange RMA options, and an online average price of $280 (or 5 cents per GB) and what we have is a complete package that boasts a cost that doesn’t seem all that unreasonable given the abilities this new Black edition has to offer.
 
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AkG

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Test System & Testing Methodology

Testing Methodology


Testing a drive is not as simple as putting together a bunch of files, dragging them onto folder on the drive in Windows and using a stopwatch to time how long the transfer takes. Rather, there are factors such as read / write speed and data burst speed to take into account. There is also the SATA controller on your motherboard and how well it works with SSDs & HDDs to think about as well. For best results you really need a dedicated hardware RAID controller w/ dedicated RAM for drives to shine. Unfortunately, most people do not have the time, inclination or monetary funds to do this. For this reason our testbed will be a more standard motherboard with no mods or high end gear added to it. This is to help replicate what you the end user’s experience will be like.

Even when the hardware issues are taken care of the software itself will have a negative or positive impact on the results. As with the hardware end of things, to obtain the absolute best results you do need to tweak your OS setup; however, just like with the hardware solution most people are not going to do this. For this reason our standard OS setup is used. However, except for the Vista load test times we have done our best to eliminate this issue by having the drive tested as a secondary drive. With the main drive being a Intel DC S3700 800GB Solid State Drive.

For synthetic tests we used a combination of the ATTO Disk Benchmark, HDTach, HD Tune, Crystal Disk Benchmark, IOMeter, AS-SSD and PCMark 7.

For real world benchmarks such as OS startup, Firefox reload and data transfer times. For data transfer we timed how long a single 10GB rar file took to copy to and then from the devices. We also used 10gb of small files (from 100kb to 200MB) with a total 12,000 files in 400 subfolders.

All tests were run 4 times and average results are represented.

In between each test suite runs (with the exception being IOMeter which was done after every run) the drives are cleaned with either HDDerase, SaniErase or OCZ SSDToolbox and then quick formatted to make sure that they were in optimum condition for the next test suite.

For all RAID testing an LSI MegaRaid 9240 was used; however all drives attached were configured as JBOD and MS Windows 7 built in drive management tools were used to create the RAID array.

Processor: Core i7 5930K
Motherboard: Asus Sabretooth TUF X99
Memory: 32GB Crucial Ballistix Elite DDR4-2666
Graphics card: NVIDIA GeForce GTX 780
Hard Drive: Intel DC S3700 800GB, Intel P3700 800GB
Power Supply: XFX 850
SAS Controller: LSI MegaRaid 9240
 
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AkG

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Read Bandwidth / Write Performance

Read Bandwidth


<i>For this benchmark, HD Tune Pro was used. It shows the potential read speed which you are likely to experience with these storage devices. We don’t put much stock in Burst speed readings and thus we no longer included it. The most important number is the Average Speed number. This number will tell you what to expect from a given drive in normal, day to day operations. The higher the average the faster your entire system will seem.</i>

<div align="center"><img src="http://images.hardwarecanucks.com/image/akg/Storage/Black_6TB/read.jpg" border="0" alt="" /></div>


Write Performance


<i>For this benchmark HD Tune Pro was used. To run the write benchmark on a drive, you must first remove all partitions from that drive and then and only then will it allow you to run this test. Unlike some other benchmarking utilities the HD Tune Pro writes across the full area of the drive, thus it easily shows any weakness a drive may have.</i>

<div align="center"><img src="http://images.hardwarecanucks.com/image/akg/Storage/Black_6TB/write.jpg" border="0" alt="" />
</div>

This is one <i>fast</i> hard drive. At its absolute ‘slowest’ the Black 6TB still writes data to the platters at a blistering 104+ Megabytes per second. That is nearly 19MB/s faster than its 4GB predecessor or a 21.7% increase! More impressive still is the average performance is a whopping 177+MB/s and this drive peaked at 224MB/s – which pretty darn close to first generation SSD territory.

On the read side of the equation average speeds were an impressive 179.8MB/s. Once again this is noticeably faster than the previous generation (nearly 33% faster) and even makes an Enterprise Grade hard drive like the Seagate Enterprise Capacity 3.5” v4 HDD look slow in comparison. Obviously the combination of a smarter controller, smart (and more) RAM cache, and 1.2TB platters is a winning one.
 
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AkG

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ATTO Disk Benchmark

ATTO Disk Benchmark


<i>The ATTO disk benchmark tests the drives read and write speeds using gradually larger size files. For these tests, the ATTO program was set to run from its smallest to largest value (.5KB to 8192KB) and the total length was set to 256MB. The test program then spits out an extrapolated performance figure in megabytes per second. </i>

<div align="center"><img src="http://images.hardwarecanucks.com/image/akg/Storage/Black_6TB/atto_w.jpg" border="0" alt="" />
<img src="http://images.hardwarecanucks.com/image/akg/Storage/Black_6TB/atto_r.jpg" border="0" alt="" /></div>

Thanks to its new dual core controller, dual actuators, and incredibly dense platters this new Black is simply stunning for a 7,200RPM drive. So much so that if there was ever a reason still left to purchase a 1TB Velociraptor this model, just removed it. That is no mean feat by any stretch of the imagination.
 
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AkG

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Crystal DiskMark / PCMark 7 / AS-SSD

Crystal DiskMark


<i>Crystal DiskMark is designed to quickly test the performance of your hard drives. Currently, the program allows to measure sequential and random read/write speeds; and allows you to set the number of tests iterations to run. We left the number of tests at 5 and size at 100MB. </i>

<div align="center"><img src="http://images.hardwarecanucks.com/image/akg/Storage/Black_6TB/cdm_w.jpg" border="0" alt="" />
<img src="http://images.hardwarecanucks.com/image/akg/Storage/Black_6TB/cdm_r.jpg" border="0" alt="" /></div>

Once again the line between 10,000RPM SATA and 7,200rpm SATA hard drives has been all but erased. Higher latency and slower spindle speed or not this model is incredibly fast for <i>any</i> SATA drive and obviously the old maximum that quantity has a quality all its own is in full effect.


PCMark 7


<i>While there are numerous suites of tests that make up PCMark 7, only one is pertinent: the HDD Suite. The HDD Suite consists of numerous tests that try and replicate real world drive usage. Everything from how long a simulated virus scan takes to complete, to MS Vista start up time to game load time is tested in these core tests; however we do not consider this anything other than just another suite of synthetic tests. For this reason, while each test is scored individually we have opted to include only the overall score.</i>

<div align="center"><img src="http://images.hardwarecanucks.com/image/akg/Storage/Black_6TB/pcm7.jpg" border="0" alt="" />
</div>

This new Black series may not exactly have been designed with Operating Systems in mind, but it is an extremely fast drive nonetheless. Obviously Western Digital is courting gamers with the Black 6TB and based on what we have seen so far they are doing one hell of a job at precisely that.


AS-SSD


<i>AS-SSD is designed to quickly test the performance of your drives. Currently, the program allows to measure sequential and small 4K read/write speeds as well as 4K file speed at a queue depth of 6. While its primary goal is to accurately test Solid State Drives, it does equally well on all storage mediums it just takes longer to run each test as each test reads or writes 1GB of data.</i>

<div align="center"><img src="http://images.hardwarecanucks.com/image/akg/Storage/Black_6TB/asd_w.jpg" border="0" alt="" />
<img src="http://images.hardwarecanucks.com/image/akg/Storage/Black_6TB/asd_r.jpg" border="0" alt="" /></div>

As with the Crystal DiskMark results, the Western Digital 6TB Black is redefining what levels of performance consumers can expect from a ‘mere’ 7,200RPM drive. Put simply this drive is as fast as a VelociRaptor, offers six times the storage capacity <i>and</I> costs less. No matter how you look at it that is rather impressive to say the least.
 
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AkG

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IOMeter

IOMETER: Our Standard Test


<i>IOMeter is heavily weighted towards the server end of things, and since we here at HWC are more End User centric we will be setting and judging the results of IOMeter a little bit differently than most. To test each drive we ran 5 test runs per device (1,4,16,64,128 queue depth) each test having 8 parts, each part lasting 10 min w/ an additional 20 second ramp up. The 8 subparts were set to run 100% random, 80% read 20% write; testing 512b, 1k, 2k,4k,8k,16k,32k,64k size chunks of data. When each test is finished IOMeter spits out a report, in that reports each of the 8 subtests are given a score in I/Os per second. We then take these 8 numbers add them together and divide by 8. This gives us an average score for that particular queue depth that is heavily weighted for single user environments and workstation environments. </i>

<div align="center"><img src="http://images.hardwarecanucks.com/image/akg/Storage/Black_6TB/iom.jpg" border="0" alt="" /></div>

At lower queue depths this consumer grade drive is simply amazing. Not only does it trade blows with Seagate’s Enterprise grade hard drive series, it also is neck and neck with the VelociRaptor 1TB.

Unfortunately, once the queue depths get really deep the obvious fine tuning to the firmware and caching algorithms come into play and the new Black 6TB falls back a step or two. This is to be expected as the typical home user will never encounter queue depths this deep.


IOMETER: File Server Test


<i>To test each drive we ran 6 test runs per device (1,4,16,64,128,256 queue depth) each test having 8 parts, each part lasting 10 min w/ an additional 20 second ramp up. The 6 subparts were set to run 100% random, 75% read 25% write; testing 512b, 4k,8k,16k,32k,64k size chunks of data. When each test is finished IOMeter spits out a report, in that reports each of the 6 subtests are given a score in I/Os per second. We then take these 8 numbers add them together and divide by 6. This gives us an average score for that particular queue depth that is heavily weighted for file server usage.</i>

<div align="center"><img src="http://images.hardwarecanucks.com/image/akg/Storage/Black_6TB/iom_f.jpg" border="0" alt="" />
</div>

Once again this drive at lower queue depths is one of the fastest we have tested to date, and the very fact it is successfully competing against enterprise and workstation orientated models is a testament to just how potent it is.


IOMETER: Web Server Test


<i>The goal of our IOMeter Web Server configuration is to help reproduce a typical heavily accessed web server. The majority of the typical web server’s workload consists of dealing with random small file size read requests.

To replicate such an environment, we ran 6 test runs per device (1,4,16,64,128,256 queue depth) each test having 8 parts, each part lasting 10 min w/ an additional 20 second ramp up. The 8 subparts were set to run 100% random, 95% read 5% write; testing 512b, 1k, 2k,4k,8k,16k,32k,64k size chunks of data. When each test is finished IOMeter spits out a report, in that reports each of the 8 subtests are given a score in I/Os per second. We then take these 8 numbers add them together and divide by 8. This gives us an average score for that particular queue depth that is heavily weighted for web server environments. </i>

<div align="center">
<img src="http://images.hardwarecanucks.com/image/akg/Storage/Black_6TB/iom_w.jpg" border="0" alt="" /></div>

Once again the additional platter density and improvements to the controller, firmware, and even cache results in a noticeable improvement in overall performance. Of course once the queue depths get deeper than the design parameters of the Black series, performance does have a tendency to level off faster than enterprise orientated models.


IOMETER: Email Server Test


<i>The goal of our IOMeter Email Server configuration is to help reproduce a typical corporate email server. Unlike most servers, the typical email server’s workload is split evenly between random small file size read and write requests.

To replicate such an environment we ran 5 test runs per drive (1,4,16,64,128 queue depth) each test having 3 parts, each part lasting 10 min w/ an additional 20 second ramp up. The 3 subparts were set to run 100% random, 50% read 50% write; testing 2k,4k,8k, size chunks of data. When each test is finished IOMeter spits out a report, in that reports each of the subtests are given a score in I/Os per second. We then take these numbers add them together and divide by 3. This gives us an average score for that particular queue depth that is heavily weighted for email server environments. </i>

<div align="center">
<img src="http://images.hardwarecanucks.com/image/akg/Storage/Black_6TB/iom_e.jpg" border="0" alt="" /></div>

This new model really does shine like no 7,200RPM drive before it. What more is there to say?
 
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AkG

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Oct 24, 2007
Messages
5,274
Windows 7 / Adobe CS5 Load Time

Windows 7 Start Up w/ Boot Time A/V Scan


<i>When it comes to hard drive performance there is one area that even the most oblivious user notices: how long it takes to load the Operating System. Where Windows 7 has become nearly ubiquitous for solid state drive enthusiasts we have chosen Windows 7 64bit Ultimate as our Operating System. In previous load time tests we would use the Anti-Virus splash screen as our finish line; this however is no longer the case. We have not only added in a secondary Anti-Virus to load on startup, but also an anti-malware program. We have set Super Anti-Spyware to initiate a quick scan on Windows start-up and the completion of the quick scan will be our new finish line.</i>

<div align="center"><img src="http://images.hardwarecanucks.com/image/akg/Storage/Black_6TB/boot.jpg" border="0" alt="" /></div>


Adobe CS5 Load Time


<i>Photoshop is a notoriously slow loading program under the best of circumstances, and while the latest version is actually pretty decent, when you add in a bunch of extra brushes and the such you get a really great torture test which can bring even the best of the best to their knees. Let’s see how our review unit faired in the Adobe crucible! </i>

<div align="center">
<img src="http://images.hardwarecanucks.com/image/akg/Storage/Black_6TB/adobe.jpg" border="0" alt="" /></div>

The new 6TB Blacks is an absolute beast when it comes to system load times . The same holds true of application load times as this drive is stunningly fast for a consumer grade, 7,200RPM hard drive. Brilliant stuff.
 
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AkG

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Firefox Performance / Real World Data Transfers

Firefox Portable Offline Performance


<i>Firefox is notorious for being slow on loading tabs in offline mode once the number of pages to be opened grows larger than a dozen or so. We can think of fewer worse case scenarios than having 100 tabs set to reload in offline mode upon Firefox startup, but this is exactly what we have done here.

By having 100 pages open in Firefox portable, setting Firefox to reload the last session upon next session start and then setting it to offline mode, we are able to easily recreate a worse case scenario. Since we are using Firefox portable all files are easily positioned in one location, making it simple to repeat the test as necessary. In order to ensure repetition, before touching the Firefox portable files, we have backed them up into a .rar file and only extracted a copy of it to the test device.</i>

<div align="center"><img src="http://images.hardwarecanucks.com/image/akg/Storage/Black_6TB/ff.jpg" border="0" alt="" /></div>

Even though this test is more favorable to enterprise orientated hard drives, the Western Digital Black 6TB easily holds its own. The combination of ultra-dense palters, nearly precognizant caching algorithms, and a robust controller is simply powerful enough to overcome firmware limitations and allow this drive to be one heck of an all-round performer.


Real World Data Transfers


<i>No matter how good a synthetic benchmark like IOMeter or PCMark is, it cannot really tell you how your hard drive will perform in “real world” situations. All of us here at Hardware Canucks strive to give you the best, most complete picture of a review item’s true capabilities and to this end we will be running timed data transfers to give you a general idea of how its performance relates to real life use. To help replicate worse case scenarios we will transfer a 10.00GB contiguous file and a folder containing 400 subfolders with a total 12,000 files varying in length from 200mb to 100kb (10.00 GB total).

Testing will include transfer to and transferring from the devices, using MS RichCopy and logging the performance of the drive. Here is what we found. </i>

<div align="center">
<img src="http://images.hardwarecanucks.com/image/akg/Storage/Black_6TB/copy_sm.jpg" border="0" alt="" />
<img src="http://images.hardwarecanucks.com/image/akg/Storage/Black_6TB/copy_lg.jpg" border="0" alt="" /></div>

These numbers just prove how good a performer this model is and how easily it justifies its asking price. Equally obvious is Western Digital has focused their Black team’s attention on satisfying the PC gaming enthusiast needs; they are among the few who truly need all this space, and want it to be as fast as possible in order to minimize game load times.
 
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AkG

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Partial and Full Drive Performance

Partial and Full Drive Performance


<i>While it is important to know how a drive will perform under optimal conditions, more realistic scenarios are just as important. Knowing how drive will behave when partially or even nearly full than when it is empty is very important information to know. To quickly and accurately show this crucial information we have first filled the drive to 50% capacity and re-tested using both synthetic and real world tests. After the completion of this we then re-test at 75% and 90% of full capacity. </i>


Synthetic Test Results

<i>For our synthetic testing we have opted for our standard PCMark 7 test.</i>

<div align="center">
<img src="http://images.hardwarecanucks.com/image/akg/Storage/Black_6TB/data_adobe.jpg" border="0" alt="" /></div>


Real World Results

<i>For a real world application we have opted for our standard Adobe CS5 test.</i>

<div align="center"><img src="http://images.hardwarecanucks.com/image/akg/Storage/Black_6TB/data_pcm.jpg" border="0" alt="" />
</div>

As expected the Western Digital 6TB Black edition’s performance drop-off is predictable yet gradual and not all that significant in the grand scheme of things. When this drive is at near capacity – which does take a long time to physically accomplish – it is basically as fast as the previous generation at 50% capacity. That right there sums up just how much advancement Western Digital has been able to cram into one generation.
 
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AkG

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Conclusion; The Best Just Got Better

Conclusion; The Best Just Got Better


With SSDs now offering relatively good price / capacity levels and suitably high performance, hard drive manufacturers could have been pushed into an untenable situation. Not so with Western Digital. They have recognized there’s an opportunity to advance current HDD designs with updated technology and enhance throughput while continuing to offer cavernous amounts of storage space. The Black 6TB takes all of these ideas and wraps them up in an extremely impressive package.

As NAND prices fall current generation SSDs have seen a plunge in their respective prices which puts 1TB models well within the reach of many users (take a look at the Crucial BX200 series for proof of that). However, this trend has been paralleled by a pretty drastic increase in the space required by games, video, pictures and other content. Cloud storage has taken up some of the slack but home users like gamers and even budding content creators still find themselves in need of local space for quick access to their files. While storage enthusiasts may thumb their nose at mechanical storage, it is a medium that’s still alive and kicking.

What Western Digital has accomplished with the Black 6TB is nothing short of incredible. Through the effective application of an advanced drive head configuration, a larger cache buffer and other features, they have achieved performance metrics that equal 10,000RPM drives without needing to resort to exotic and costly next generation technologies. This approach pays dividends since the Black 6TB makes its 4TB predecessor look downright slow in comparison. We saw peak speeds of over 224MB/s and even when filled to capacity was still going strong at nearly 105MB/s. For the average user this makes every last byte of space on the 6TB Black <i>usable</i> which is a key metric for longevity.

Regardless of whether the Black is going to be used as a pure storage drive attached to a separate SSD-based OS or as a pure home for your operating system and all files, it has the capability to satisfy. However, as a repository for your gaming libraries, this thing is unsurpassed. After all, an <i>average</i> read speed of nearly 180MB/s is high enough to make load times in most games more than tolerable, and 6TB of capacity leaves plenty of room left over for less time sensitive data.

This combination of great performance with great capacity is going to make a lot of users awfully tempted to consolidate two or even three of their existing drives on to one new Black Edition 6TB. When you add in the reduced power consumption and a five year hassle-free warranty, this drive may just be the perfect HDD for everyone from gamers, to environmentally concerned consumers, to even small form-factor system builders. Western Digital has just breathed new life into their flagship lineup in a big way.

<div align="center">
<img src="http://images.hardwarecanucks.com/image/akg/Storage/Black_6TB/dam_good.jpg" border="0" alt="" /> <img src="http://images.hardwarecanucks.com/image/akg/Storage/Black_6TB/di.png" border="0" alt="" /></div>
 
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